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stone arrowhead, N'quatqua

stone arrowhead, N'quatqua

Description:

A black stone arrow head carved into a pyramidal section and a lower stem narrower than the base of the pyramid. [2019 update] Small black basalt stone arrowhead. Found within N'quatqua territory in Birken BC. Johnny Jones believes it is close to 3000 years old, although parts of it were carved off more recently.

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

989.42.01

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chopping tool (stone), Lil'wat

chopping tool (stone), Lil'wat

Description:

[This item was repatriated to Lil'wat Nation Nov 22, 2019]. Cobble spall chopping tool identified at UBC Museum of Anthropology. Reddish brown. Age: may be between 300 and 3000 years old [update 2019] Location where item was found by Fougberg is unknown. [Update 2019] The cobble spall tool was simple to make and handy for many tasks that involved cutting, scraping or digging. Johnny Jones sent a reference from page 348 of James Teit's "Journal of American Folklore", which explains a "Thunder arrowhead". [footnote reads] "A thunder arrowhead is fired by the Thunder. Most are simply large pieces of arrow-stone, generally blocked off more or less, so that they somewhat resemble a spear-head or an arrow-head of huge size". Johnny Jones says the object is associated with the Haitlo'laux (Grizzly Clan) and shares pg. 348 from Journal of American Folk-lore by James Teit, "when he came out of the [sweat] house, he was at once changed to resemble a Hailo'laux with much red hair all over his body. The hair of his head also assumed a red colour".].

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

989.01.01

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hand maul, Lil'wat

hand maul, Lil'wat

Description:

[This item was repatriated to Lil'wat Nation Nov 22, 2019]. Granite hand maul. Column, flat topped. Below the top a slight bulge tapers to an area for gripping. Below that the column flares gradually to a base wider than the top. History: About 1950, ploughing a field belonging to Nelson Fraser, Mr. Fougberg found the maul in two sections. Later someone glued the parts together. In 1956 Mrs. Fraser gave the maul to the finder. [Update 2019] Hand mauls are almost exclusive to the indigenous people of the southern coast. The hand maul required hard stone not prone to cracking or chipping; it was used to pound wedges into a cedar log to split off planks, as well as for other woodworking requirements. The maul was made by pecking and grinding techniques. A stone of suitable size and material was selected, pecked to the required shape, ground smooth, then polished with a piece of oiled hide. [See publication "Stone, Bone, Antler & Shell" by Hilary Stewart, 1996 - shared by Johnny Jones].

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

988.26.01

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stone hammer, Stl’atl’imx

stone hammer, Stl’atl’imx

Description:

Archaeological implement. Broken hammer stone. [update 2019] The broken bottom half of a stone maul. Looks like the bottom portion of a broken hammer stone and cleanly broken diagonally. Location where found in Stl’atl’imx territory is unknown. Hand mauls are almost exclusive to the indigenous people of the southern coast. The hand maul required hard stone not prone to cracking or chipping; it was used to pound wedges into a cedar log to split off planks, as well as for other woodworking requirements. The maul was made by pecking and grinding techniques. A stone of suitable size and material was selected, pecked to the required shape, ground smooth, then polished with a piece of oiled hide. [See publication "Stone, Bone, Antler & Shell" by Hilary Stewart, 1996 - shared by Johnny Jones].

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

010.19.13

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top section of stone maul, Lil'wat

top section of stone maul, Lil'wat

Description:

[This item was repatriated to Lil'wat Nation Nov 22, 2019]. Possibly half of the maul has broken off. It was found in the general area of Guthrie's (now Hoffman's) farm possibly on H. Menzel's land or among gravel on the road. In the late 50's Mrs. Guthrie saw a young boy using the maul as a hammer she persuaded him to give it to her. [update 2019] Hand mauls are almost exclusive to the indigenous people of the southern coast. The hand maul required hard stone not prone to cracking or chipping; it was used to pound wedges into a cedar log to split off planks, as well as for other woodworking requirements. The maul was made by pecking and grinding techniques. A stone of suitable size and material was selected, pecked to the required shape, ground smooth, then polished with a piece of oiled hide. [See publication "Stone, Bone, Antler & Shell" by Hilary Stewart, 1996 - shared by Johnny Jones].

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

983.56.06

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Black stone maul, Lil'wat

Black stone maul, Lil'wat

Description:

[This item was repatriated to Lil'wat Nation Nov 22, 2019]. Black stone maul used for grinding or as a hammer. This black stone tool was found by Hjelt about 1967 as he worked with a grader spreading gravel near Smuk's place about 17 miles upriver from Pemberton Village. The gravel had come from the river bank. In Mount Currie, Hjelt had seen similar stone to that in the tool. It is in sound condition, slightly worn at the top. It was found on Bank of the Lillooet river above Smuks (Upper Meadows). Found in gravel near river bank. [update 2019] Hand mauls are almost exclusive to the indigenous people of the southern coast. The hand maul required hard stone not prone to cracking or chipping; it was used to pound wedges into a cedar log to split off planks, as well as for other woodworking requirements. The maul was made by pecking and grinding techniques. A stone of suitable size and material was selected, pecked to the required shape, ground smooth, then polished with a piece of oiled hide. [See publication "Stone, Bone, Antler & Shell" by Hilary Stewart, 1996 - shared by Johnny Jones].

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

983.03.01

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stone net weight, Lil'wat

stone net weight, Lil'wat

Description:

[This item was repatriated to Lil'wat Nation Nov 22, 2019]. 1989 Karen Koons is writing a description of Lillooet stone net weight. Stone net weight, large and slightly pill shaped with a groove near one end likely for a rope or some other form of rope. [update 2019] Lil'wat Stone Net Weight with a face carved into the end of the item. This rounded end has traces of red ochre that was applied to the carving. Net weights are also called anchors and sinker stones. An anchor stone held down one end of an outstretched gillnet while sinker stones on the lower edge kept the net hanging vertically. Information from "Stone, Bone, Antler and Shell" by Hillary Stewart, 1996 - shared by Johnny Jones. Johnny Jones says the object is an Owl or Sa'inuz clan marker. He believes it is associated with the Sa'inux clan (village) by old Red Bridge crossing described by anthropologist James Teit in "Journal of American Folklore" as "between the Indian Village of Pemberton and Green Lake at a place a little above Currie's Ranch, there formerly lived a number of people in two underground houses. Sa'inux Clan beings are considered to be half human and half fish. The descendants of the Sa'inux dance at potlatches, with masks and clothes representing half man, half fish. These people were called Sa'inux, and were familiar with the water and powerful in magic". Charlie Mack in his intro to the story "The Boy Who Had Wild Cherry Bark as His Power" said "these mysterious people drowned when their underground houses filled with water, caused by the trained boy dropping salmon down through the entranceway. Charlie called it "a true story about some of our ancestors" when he told the story in 1971. [See book "The Lil'wat World of Charlie Mack"].

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

983.58.01

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stone tool, N'quatqua

stone tool, N'quatqua

Description:

Generally circular and tapered, this tool lacks a 7 cm section extending up from the base along the tapered length. Recent slight markings were made by a shovel 2.5 cm. from the base the maker cut a fine groove. On a smaller scale, the tool resembles a net weight (983.58.1) used in fishing nets as identified by Lillooet Indians. Mary James says the tool would have had as many as four uses, such as maul, hammer,club, net weight, and grinder.[update 2019] Item was found by R. Streloff of Birken B.C. at DL 1250 Lot 1. A bird face is carved into small end on one side. Net weights are also called anchors and sinker stones. An anchor stone held down one end of an outstretched gillnet while sinker stones on the lower edge kept the net hanging vertically. Information from "Stone, Bone, Antler and Shell" by Hillary Stewart, 1996 - shared by Johnny Jones. Johnny believes it could also have been used as a stone club in war or as a hammer stone.

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

983.57.02

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hammer stone, N'quatqua

hammer stone, N'quatqua

Description:

This tool resembles a small pillow in shape . On both ends, both top and bottom, are small uniform sections which have either been chipped or worn. The tool tapers uniformly from its middle to the flattened ends. Barbara Streloff, of Birken BC, dug up the tool as she was working in her garden. See Heritage record #3, B. C. M. A.: Archaeological Data Recording Guide. [update 2019] Hammerstones were a multipurpose tool with a wide range of functions. Though employed in their natural state, they became modified with use, thus making them recognizable as tools. The varying sizes and shapes of hammerstones often help to identify their functions, as do wear patterns. [from "Stone, Bone, Antler and Shell" by Hilary Stewart, 1996 - shared by Johnny Jones]. This hammerstone has signs of wear on both ends.

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

983.57.01

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semi circular stone, Lil'wat

semi circular stone, Lil'wat

Description:

[This item was repatriated to Lil'wat Nation Nov 22, 2019]. Half moon shape, grey granite stone; flat on bottom, rounded on top; Used by the natives for ? [2019 update] Lil'wat multipurpose stone tool. Made from granite, half-moon or 'C' shape. Crescent stone used for flaking arrow heads or as a hammer stone. Sometimes the inside is used as a scraper to smooth the wood of bows and shafts of arrows.

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

988.05.08

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Stone bowl, Lil'wat

Stone bowl, Lil'wat

Description:

[This item was repatriated to Lil'wat Nation Nov 22, 2019]. A Lillooet stone bowl. [update 2019] A Lil'wat stone bowl made of heavy pumice stone with a face carved on it. Used for multiple purposes, such as grinding down different ingredients.

Date of Creation:

Accession #:

990.01.01

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